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    Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Une nouvelle théorie sur le capital + Les Économistes autrichiens + Karl Marx and the Close of His System

    Johnathan R. Razorback

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    Date d'inscription : 12/08/2013
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    Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Une nouvelle théorie sur le capital + Les Économistes autrichiens + Karl Marx and the Close of His System

    Message par Johnathan R. Razorback le Dim 6 Déc - 13:13



    "Ce que les Écoles classique et historique ont négligé, l'École autrichienne est en train de l'accomplir aujourd'hui."
    -Eugen Böhm-Bawerk, Les Économistes autrichiens, 1891.


    "Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk was born (1851) into one of the aristocratic-bureaucratic families which were the real rulers of Imperial Austria, his father being at the time a high official in Moravia. When he was still very young his father died and the family moved to Vienna where, except for nine years of teaching at the University of Innsbruck (1880-1889), he spent most of the rest of his life. After taking a course of law at the University of Vienna he entered the Finance Ministry in 1872. In 1875 he took a  three-year leave of absence to study economics with some of the outstanding German professors of the day. From this time on, his career was a mixture of government service and university teaching. He served as Finance Minister in three different cabinets (1895, 1897-1898, 1900-1904). From 1904 until his death in 1914 he held a chair in political economy at the University of Vienna.
    As an economist, Böhm-Bawerk was from the first a champion of the new subjective value or marginal utility theory which his somewhat older contemporary, Carl Menger, had been the first to enunciate in Austria. Böhm-Bawerk, along with Menger and Friedrich Wieser (whose sister he married in  1880), was thus one of the founders of the so-called Austrian school. His two major works,
    Capital and Interest and The Positive Theory of Capital, were published in 1884 and 1889 respectively, before he was forty years old; and as the subjective value theory spread geo-graphically and gained in popularity, Böhm-Bawerk's fame grew by leaps and bounds. Outside of his own country he came to be much better known than Menger or Wieser, and by  the turn of the century it is probable that his international  reputation was greater than that of any other living economist, with the possible exception of  Alfred Marshall. Only in Britain, where the authority of Marshall and Edgeworth (at Cambridge and Oxford respectively) was virtually unchallenged, did Böhm-Bawerk fail to attract a substantial following;  while in countries as widely separated as Sweden, the United States, and Japan his influence upon academic economics was profound." (p.VII-VIII)

    "When Karl Marx and the Close of His System was published in 1896 it was an immediate success and soon became what might almost be called the official answer of the economics profession to Marx and the Marxian school." (p.IX)

    "Pareto's criticisms of Marx were never translated and exerted no significant influence in German or English-speaking countries." (p.XII)
    -Paul M. Sweezy, introduction to Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Karl Marx and the Close of His System, New York, 1949 (1896 pour la première édition autrichienne), 224 pages.

    -Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Karl Marx and the Close of His System, 1896.

    « La racine de toute doctrine erronée se trouve dans une erreur philosophique. [...] Le rôle des penseurs vrais, mais aussi une tâche de tout homme libre, est de comprendre les possibles conséquences de chaque principe ou idée, de chaque décision avant qu'elle se change en action, afin d'exclure aussi bien ses conséquences nuisibles que la possibilité de tromperie. » -Jacob Sher, Avertissement contre le socialisme, Introduction à « Tableaux de l'avenir social-démocrate » d'Eugen Richter, avril 1998.

    "Il y a, de nos jours, beaucoup de gens qui s'accommodent très aisément de cette espèce de compromis entre le despotisme administratif et la souveraineté du peuple, et qui pensent avoir assez garanti la liberté des individus, quand c'est au pouvoir national qu'ils la livrent. Cela ne me suffit point." -Alexis de Tocqueville, De la Démocratie en Amérique, vol II, Quatrième Partie : Chapitre VI, 1840.

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